So started the invitation sent each spring in the first fresh peas of the year competition held by Thomas Jefferson and his neighbors.
Most gardeners say that it is impossible to buy peas that taste like those that come straight from the garden.
Garden peas—also commonly called English peas or green peas—are one of the first vegetables harvested in spring. They are best picked as soon as the pods fill out and the peas inside are fat and round.
Shelled garden peas should go directly to the table with only a brief stop at the stove. The sweetness of the peas is at stake.
The conversion of the pea’s natural sugar to starch begins immediately after harvest. Some cooks say the greatest lag time between picking and serving peas should be no more than 12 hours. If you serve properly stored peas within a day or two of harvest, you should still find them a treat.
Garden peas are peas out of the pod eaten as a green vegetable. Pea pods are parchment like and too stringy to eat. Garden peas along with field peas are also known as shelling peas because the pods are removed before eating.
Peas have oblong pods that contain up to ten round seeds. Most garden pea cultivars have flowers that are white. Peas with flowers that are pink and purple are used for making dry peas or split peas.
Peas are an annual crop that originated in the eastern Mediterranean region, probably ancient Persia. The cultivation of dried peas began more than 8,000 years ago. Green peas and edible-podded peas–such as snow peas and sugar snap peas—are more recent developments.
Garden peas in addition to being known as green peas or English peas are also sometimes called baby peas, early peas, June pea, and by the French name petit pois.
Petit pois or baby peas are small seeded garden peas. They include peas that are simply picked very early but also include some pea cultivars that are genetically smaller than others. Petit pois, known by gourmands for their tenderness and sweet flavor, are a delicacy in France.
But all garden peas which are eaten when they are fat but still soft will be a sweet treat. Depending upon variety, garden peas ready for harvest will measure from 1¾ to 6 inches (4-15 cm) long and contain between two and ten seeds of varying size. Seeds are generally round but also can have a slightly square form. Most garden peas are green but some varieties may be grayish, whitish, or brownish.
Garden peas are descended from field peas and are the product of centuries of cultivation and selection. The Greeks and Roman cultivated shelling peas for drying. Renaissance gardeners were the first to cultivate sweet green peas.
The cool climate of England is perfect for growing peas. The sophistication of pea growing in England and the development of new varieties there resulted in garden peas being dubbed English peas.
Choose. Select peas that have plump, unblemished, bright green pods. Peas in the pod should be glossy, crunchy, and sweet. The pods should be plump but not bulging. Peas in a bulging pod will be too mature. Peas are ripe when the seam on the side of the pod has gone from convex to concave.
Avoid pea pods that are dull looking or rattle when shaken. The peas inside will be old and have lost moisture. Avoid peas with yellowish or gray speckles.
Break a pod open and taste a pea. It should be sweet not starchy.
Store. Refrigerate peas in pods unwashed in a plastic bag for no more than 2 days. Shelled peas can be kept in the refrigerator in a sealed plastic bag for 2 days. Shelled, blanched peas can be frozen for 2 months.
Prepare. Shell garden peas just before using. Rinse peas under running water before shelling; snap off the stem end of the pod; pull off the string along the seams. Do the same at the other end, and pry the pod open to remove the seeds.
Serve. Serve peas within hours of harvest otherwise the sugars will start turning to starch. Peas can be served raw or cooked.
Boil or steam fresh peas in a minimum amount of water in a covered saucepan 30 seconds to 1 minute but no more than 3 minutes. Overcooked peas will be mushy.
Use fresh, raw, sweet English peas tossed into salads.
Cook. Cooked peas can accompany meat and poultry dishes. Peas are good with delicate meats such as veal or veal sweetbreads. Use peas in soups, stews, omelets, frittatas, and pasta dishes.
- Braise peas in stock with lettuce. French cooks add shredded lettuce to steaming peas. You can also add onion or green onion.
- You can braise peas between two layers of rinsed lettuce leaves. Italian cooks braise peas with prosciutto. Indian cooks braise peas with cubes of firm cheese.
- Mix peas with carrots or corn and serve hot. Combine peas with asparagus spears.
- Serve fresh, cooked peas with boiled potatoes.
- Serve just steamed or boiled peas buttered with a sprig of mint.
- Steamed peas can be cooled then tossed with diced ham and mayonnaise for a summer salad. Add cold, cooked peas to mixed salads or potato salad.
- • Serve peas in cream sauce with pearl onions, celery, or carrots.
Frozen peas processed just after harvesting most closely mimic fresh pea in color, flavor, and nutritional value.
Flavor partners. Serve garden peas with artichokes, chervil, chives, crabmeat, lettuce, mint, salmon, scallions, scallops, shad, shrimp, sorrel, or tarragon.
Nutrition. Peas contain vitamins A, B, and C and niacin and iron. Peas are low in calories.
The botanical name for English peas is Pisum sativum.