in

Average First and Last Frost Dates for Cities, States, and Countries

Average frost dates–the last frost in spring and the first frost in autumn–can be used to set seed starting dates for the crops you plan to grow. They can also be used to set harvest dates and to plan the extension of the growing season–both early and late.

Most crops grow best during the frost-free days of the year. The days between the last frost in spring and the first frost in autumn make up the growing season. The growing season differs from region to region–longer in southern regions, shorter in northern regions.

The average date of the last and first frost allows you to estimate the length of your growing season. You can use the average date of the last and first frost to plan when seeds can be started in the garden when seeds should be started earlier indoors, and when seedlings started indoors can be set out in the open garden. Since most vegetables and herbs suffer when hit by frost, the average date of the last and first frost are very important.

Average dates of the last and first frost are estimates. They are based on historical averages, average dates kept by weather services, and state and federal agriculture agencies. These averages are commonly used as guidelines for planting and harvesting. Climate, weather, and growing season days can change from year to year so also averages can only be used to approximate when to plant or harvest.   

Hardiness Zones                         

In addition to last and first average frost dates, hardiness zones are helpful to gardeners.

A plant’s “hardiness” generally refers to its ability to survive winter temperatures. A plant that is considered hardy in Florida but cannot withstand winter low temperatures in Maine is not hardy to Maine. Hardiness zones were developed to help gardeners determine which plants can survive the minimum temperatures of a particular region.

Hardiness zones have been developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. There are 11 growing zones in the United States, zones 1-11. Zone 1 in Alaska has the coldest annual minimum temperatures (lows below -50°F) and Zone 11 in South Florida (lows above 40°F) is the warmest. Hardiness zones are further divided into “A” and “B”; “A” is the less warm region of the zone and “B” is the warmer region of the zone.

You can use last and first frost dates to help determine when the best time to plant a crop is. You can use hardiness zones to know how cold a place can get and which plants can survive there. There is an indirect correlation between the average frost dates and hardiness zones.

Other Factors

Successful growing is also determined by the garden soil type, rainfall or irrigation, daytime temperature, nighttime temperature, day length, wind, humidity, and heat. Climates and growing conditions can vary even if they are in the same growing zone. Use the zones as a starting point, not as the final determinant of what will grow in your garden.  

Here are average last frost dates, average first frost dates, average days in the growing season, and USDA zone for several cities in the United States, Canada, and other parts of the world. 

United States

State and city         Last frost          First frost            Days         Zone   

Alabama               

     Birmingham       March 19                  November 14          241                 7B             

     Mobile                 February 17              December 12          298                 8A            

     Montgomery      February 27              December 3            279                 8A            

Alaska

     Anchorage          May 18                      September 13          118                 4                

     Barrow                June 27                     July 5                           8                  4                

     Cordova              May 10                      October 2                145                  4                

     Fairbanks           May 24                     August 29                  97                  4               

Arizona

     Flagstaff             June 8                       October 2                116                 5B          

     Phoenix              January 27               December 11           317                 9A            

     Tucson               March 12                  November 21           225                 8A             

     Winslow            April 28                     October 21               176                 5B             

Arkansas

     Fort Smith          March 23                 November 9            231                 8B          

     Little Rock          March 16                 November 15          244                 7A         

     Pine Bluff            March 26                 November 5            224                 7B            

     Texarkana           March 21                 November 19          233                 7B          

California

     Bakersfield         February 14             November 28          287                 8B           

     Eureka                 March 10                  November 18          253                  8B          

     Fresno                 February 3                December 3            303                  8A            

     Los Angeles        January 3                  December 28          359                 10             

     Marysville           February 21              November 21          273                 7B            

     Palm Springs      January 8                 December 18          334                 9B          

     Pasadena             February 3                December 13          313                 9B            

     Red Bluff             March 6                     December 5            274                 7B           

     Riverside             March 6                     November 26         265                 8B            

     Sacramento         January 24               December 11          321                  8B            

     San Diego            no frost                       no frost                  365                  10            

     San Francisco     January 7                  December 29         356                  8B             

     San Jose              February 10              January 6                299                 8B            

     Santa Barbara    January 22                December 19          331                 8B                                                                     Santa Rosa          April 10                       November 3          207                 8B                       

Colorado

     Denver               May 2                       October 14              165                 5A            

     Grand Junction  April 20                    October 9                173                 6A           

     Pueblo                April 28                    October 12              167                 5B             

Connecticut

     Bridgeport          April 26                    October 16              174                 6A           

     Hartford             April 22                    October 19              180                 5A             

     New Haven        April 15                    October 25              193                 6A             

Delaware

     Dover                   April 17                    October 22              188                 7A             

     Newark                April 20                    October 17              180                 7A             

     Wilmington        April 18                    October 26              191                 7A             

District of Columbia

     Washington        April 10                    October 28              200                 9A            

Florida                  

     Jacksonville       February 6                December 16          313                 8B          

     Miami                 irregular frost           irregular frost          365                 10             

     Orlando              January 31                December 17          319                 9B        

     Tallahassee        February 26              December 3            280                 8B          

     Tampa                January 10                December 26          349                 9A           

Georgia

     Atlanta               March 20                  November 19          244                 7B             

     Augusta             March 14                  November 1            249                 7B          

     Macon                March 12                  November 19          252                 7B          

     Savannah          February 21              December 9            291                 8B             

Hawaii                   

     Hilo                    no frost                     no frost                   365                 10         `   

     Honolulu           no frost                     no frost                   365                 10             

Idaho

     Boise                  April 29                    October 16              171                 6A             

     Coeur d’Alene   May 12                     October 14              155                 5B             

     Pocatello            May 8                       September 20          155                 4              

Illinois

     Cairo                  March 23                  November 11          233                 6A             

     Chicago              April 19                    October 28              192                 5B          

     Rockford            May 7                       October 11              157                 5A           

     Springfield         April 8                      October 30              205                 5B            

     Urbana               April 22                    October 20              151                 5B             

Indiana

     Evansville          April 2                      November 4            216                 6A            

     Fort Wayne        April 24                    October 20              179                 5B             

     Indianapolis       April 17                    October 27              193                 5B           

Iowa

     Des Moines       April 20                    October 19              183                 5A             

     Dubuque            April 19                    October 19              184                 5A          

     Mason City        April 25                    September 25          153                 4             

     Sioux City          April 27                    October 13              169                 4              

Kansas

     Concordia          April 16                    October 24              191                 5B           

     Topeka               April 9                      October 26              200                 5B             

     Wichita               April 5                      November 11          210                 6A           

Kentucky

     Lexington           April 13                    October 28              198                 6A          

     Louisville           April 1                      November 7            220                 6B        

Louisiana

     Lake Charles      February 18              December 6            291                 8B             

     New Orleans      February 13              December 12          302                 9A          

     Shreveport         March 1                    November 27          272                 8A             

Maine

     Bangor               May 1                       October 4                156                 5A            

     Caribou              May 19                     September 21          125                 4                

     Greenville          May 27                     September 20          116                 5A           

     Portland             April 29                    October 15              169                 5A             

     Presque Isle       May 31                     September 18          110                 4               

Maryland

     Baltimore           March 28                  November 17          234                 7A           

     Cumberland       May 1                       October 10              163                 6A            

     Salisbury            April 20                    October 20              183                 7A            

Massachusetts

     Amherst             May 12                      September 19          130                 5B            

     Boston               April 16                      October 25              192                 6A             

     Fall River           April 22                     October 23              184                 6A            

     Nantucket          April 12                     November 16          219                 6A             

     Pittsfield             May 12                      September 27          138                 5B             

     Worcester           May 7                       October 2                148                 5B            

Michigan

     Detroit                 April 25                    October 23              181                 5B            

     Escanaba             May 14                     October 6                145                 4               

     Grand Rapids    April 25                    October 30              190                 5B           

     Lansing               May 6                       October 8                155                 5B            

     Marquette           May 13                     October 19              159                 4               

Minnesota

     Albert Lea          May 3                       October 6                156                 4               

     Duluth                May 22                     September 24          125                 3               

     Minneapolis      April 30                    October 13              166                 4                

     Virginia              May 29                     September 14          108                 3              

Mississippi

     Biloxi                  February 22              November 28          279                 8B            

     Jackson              March 10                  November 13          248                 7B          

     Tupelo                March 31                  October 28              211                 7B             

     Vicksburg          March 8                    November 15          252                 7B            

Missouri                

     Columbia            April 9                      October 24              198                 5B             

     Kansas City        April 5                      October 31              210                 5B             

     Saint Joseph      April 11                    October 14              186                 5B            

     St. Louis             April 2                      November 8            220                 5B            

     Springfield         April 13                    October 20              190                 6A             

Montana

     Billings              May 15                     September 24          132                 4              

     Glasgow            May 19                     September 20          124                 3             

     Great Falls        May 9                       September 25          139                 4                

     Havre                 May 9                       September 23          138                 4                

Nebraska

     Lincoln               April 20                    October 17              180                 5A           

     Norfolk               May 4                       October 3                152                 5A           

     North Platte       April 30                   October 7                160                 5A             

     Omaha                April 14                    October 20              189                 5A             

Nevada

     Elko                   June 6                       September 3            89                   5A             

     Las Vegas          March 13                  November 13          245                 7A             

     Reno                  May 14                      October 2                141                 5B           

New Hampshire

     Berlin                 May 29                     September 15          109                 4               

     Concord             May 11                      October 1                143                 5A          

     Errol                   June 1                       September 5            96                   4                

New Jersey

     Atlantic City      March 31                  November 11          225                 6B             

     Cape May          April 4                      November 13          222                 6B            

     New Brunswick April 21                   October 19              179                 6A            

     Newark              April 3                      November 8            219                 6A            

     Trenton              April 8                      November 5            211                 6B           

New Mexico

     Albuquerque      April 16                    October 29              196                 7A             

     Roswell               April 9                      November 2            208                 7A             

     Santa Fe             April 23                    October 19              179                 5A             

New York

     Albany               April 27                    October 13              169                 5A             

     Binghamton      May 4                       October 6                154                 5A             

     Buffalo               April 29                    October 23              178                 5B            

     New York City  April 7                      November 12          219                 6B          

     Syracuse            April 30                    October 15              168                 5A            

     Watertown         May 7                       October 4                151                 5A             

North Carolina

     Asheville            April 12                    October 24              195                 7A            

     Charlotte            March 21                  November 15          239                 7B            

     Raleigh               March 24                  November 16          237                 7B            

     Wilmington        March 15                  November 19          274                 7B            

     Winston Salem  April 14                    October 24              193                 7A          

North Dakota

     Bismarck            May 11                     September 24          136                 4            

     Fargo                  May 13                     September 27          137                 4                

     Williston            May 14                     September 23          132                 3             

Ohio

     Cincinnati           April 15                    October 25              192                 6A             

     Cleveland           April 21                    November 2            195                 5B             

     Columbus          April 17                    October 30              196                 5B             

     Dayton               April 20                    October 21              184                 5B             

     Toledo                April 24                    October 25              184                 5B             

Oklahoma

     Miami                April 7                      October 26              202                 6A            

     Oklahoma City  March 28                  November 7            223                 7A             

     Tulsa                  March 31                  November 2            216                 6B         

Oregon

     Bend                  June 8                       September 7            91                   5B           

     Eugene              April 13                     November 4            205                 7B            

     Medford            April 25                    October 20              178                 7B        

     Portland            February 25             December 1            279                 8A          

     Salem                 April 14                     October 27              197                 7B          

Pennsylvania

     Altoona              May 6                       October 4                151                 5B           

     Erie                    May 1                         October 11              163                 5A             

     Harrisburg        April 10                    October 28              201                 6A             

     Philadelphia     March 30                 November 17          232                 6B      

     Pittsburgh         April 20                    October 23              187                 6A           

     Scranton            April 24                    October 14              174                 5B           

     Williamsport     May 3                       October 13              164                 5B            

Rhode Island

     Kingston             May 1                       October 14              166                 6A          

     Providence         April 13                    October 27              197                 6A             

South Carolina

     Charleston          February 19              December 10          294                 8A            

     Columbia            March 14                  November 21          252                 7B          

     Greenville           March 23                  November 17          239                 7B           

South Dakota

     Huron                 May 4                       September 30          149                 5A           

     Rapid City          May 7                       October 4                150                 5A            

     Sioux Falls         May 5                       October 3                152                 5A          

Tennessee

     Chattanooga       March 26                  November 11          229                 7A           

     Knoxville             March 31                  November 6            220                 6B         

     Memphis            March 20                  November 12          237                 7A           

     Nashville            March 28                  November 7            224                 6B             

Texas

     Brownsville       February 15              December 10          298                 9A             

     Corpus Christi   January 26              December 27          335                 9A            

     Dallas                  March 18                  November 22          249                 8A          

     El Paso               March 26                  November 14          238                 8B            

     Houston             February 5                December 11          309                 8B          

     Lubbock             April 1                       November 9            205                 7A           

     Plainview           April 10                     November 6            211                 7B             

Utah

     Blanding             May 18                     October 14              148                 6B             

     Logan                  May 15                     October 6                144                 6B         

     Ogden                 April 13                    October 22              192                 6B        

     Salt Lake City    April 12                    November 1            202                 6B           

Vermont

     Bennington        May 15                     October 4                142                 5A      

     Burlington          May 8                       October 3                148                 4              

     St. Johnsbury     May 22                    September 25          126                 3             

Virginia

     Norfolk              March 18                  November 27          254                 7B             

     Richmond          April 2                      November 8            220                 7A           

     Roanoke             April 20                    October 24              187                 7A          

Washington

     Centralia            April 27                    October 7              173                 7B             

     Seattle                February 23             December 1            281                 7B          

     Spokane             April 20                    October 12              175                 5B             

     Walla Walla      April 3                      November 1            211                 5B         

     Yakima              April 15                     October 22              190                 6A             

West Virginia

     Charleston          April 18                    October 28              193                6B            

     Martinsburg       April 29                    October 16              170                6B            

     Parkersburg       April 16                    October 21              189                 6A            

Wisconsin             

     Green Bay          May 6                       October 13              161                 5A             

     Lacrosse             May 1                        October 8                161                 4              

     Madison             April 26                    October 19              177                 5A             

     Milwaukee         April 20                    October 25              188                5B          

Wyoming

     Casper                May 18                     September 25          130                 4                

     Cheyenne           May 20                     September 27          130                4               

     Sheridan             May 21                     September 21          123                 4                

Puerto Rico

     All locations       no frost                     no frost                   365                 10            

Virgin Islands

     All locations      no frost                     no frost                   365                 10           

 

Canada

Alberta

     Calgary              May 28                     September 9            104                 3                

     Edmonton         May 14                     September 14          123                 3            

British Columbia

     Prince George    June 10                     August 28               79                   3                

     Victoria               February 28              December 9           284                7B            

Manitoba

     Churchill            June 26                     September 12          82                 2           

     Winnipeg           May 25                     September 21          119                 3              

New Brunswick

     Fredericton         May 18                     September 26          130                 4               

Newfoundland

     Saint John’s       June 3                       October 12              131                 5A             

Northwest Territories

     Yellow Knife     May 30                     September 16          109                 2             

Nova Scotia

     Halifax               May 15                     October 15              153                 5B             

Ontario

     Toronto              April 20                    October 30              193                 5B            

Prince Edward Island

     Charlottetown    May 17                     October 15              151                 5A            

Quebec

     Montreal            May 3                       October 17              155                 4               

     Quebec City       May 18                     September 18          123                 4                

Saskatchewan

     Regina                May 27                     September 12          108                 5B       

Yukon

     Dawson             May 26                     August 27               93                   4            

 

Growing Zones throughout the World

 

Country and city             Zone       Minimum

Argentina

     Buenos Aires                     9            

     Cordoba                             9              

Australia

     Adelaide                             10                   Australia zone 4

     Brisbane                             10                  Australia zone 4

     Melbourne                          10                 Australia zone 4

     Perth                                   10                  Australia zone 4

     Sydney                               10                  Australia zone 4

Austria

     Vienna                                6             

Belgium

     Brussels                             8             

Chile

     Santiago                             10            

China

     Beijing                                7             

     Hong Kong                        10         

     Shanghai                            9              

France

     Lyon                                   8              

     Paris                                   8          

     Marseille                           9              

Germany

     Berlin                                 6           

     Frankfurt                           7           

     Hamburg                           7             

     Munich                              6             

Ireland

     Belfast                                9              

     Dublin                                8              

     Galway                               9            

Italy

     Florence                             9             

     Milan                                  8             

     Palermo                            10          

     Rome                                  9              

     Venice                                8              

Japan                                    

     Sapporo                             6              

     Kyoto                                 9          

     Tokyo                                 9              

New Zealand

     Auckland                            10          

     Christchurch                       9              

     Wellington                         10          

South Africa

     Cape Town                        11           

     Durban                               11           

     Johannesburg                    9              

Spain

     Barcelona                          10            

     Cordoba                             9                

     Madrid                               9             

     Seville                                10            

     Valencia                             10           

United Kingdom

     Bristol                                9             

     Glasgow                             8              

     Inverness                           8            

     Leeds                                  8            

     Liverpool                           9              

     London                               8              

Uruguay

     Montevideo                       10              

 

 

 

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

GIPHY App Key not set. Please check settings

One Comment

succession crops

November Planting and To-Dos Zone-by-Zone

spring planting

January Vegetable Garden Zone-by-Zone