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How to Grow Hot Chili Peppers

Peppers on vertical wire
Pepper jalapeno
Jalapeno pepper

Hot peppers are most easily grown from transplants. Grow hot chili peppers in the warmest, frost-free time of the year.

Start hot pepper seed indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the date you intend to set peppers into the garden.

Peppers can be seeded in the garden or transplanted out 2 to 3 weeks after the last frost in spring after the soil temperature has risen to at least 65°F.

Hot peppers grow best where the air temperature ranges from 70° to 95°F. Hot peppers mature in 60 to 95 days.

Description. Peppers are tender perennials that are grown as annuals. Peppers grow on compact erect bushes 1½ to 2 feet tall. The fruit follows a single flower growing in the angle between the leaf and the stem. Hot peppers can range in length from 1 to 7 inches long and in color from green to red to gold and yellow.

Yield. Hot peppers vary greatly in spiciness. Choose peppers and the number to plant according to how you plan to use them.

Planting Hot Peppers

Site. Grow peppers in full sun in soil that is rich in organic matter, moisture retentive but well draining. Peppers prefer a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.8. Work aged garden compost into beds prior to planting. The optimal soil temperature for peppers is 65°F or warmer.

Planting time. Hot peppers grow best in air temperatures 70° to 95°F. Peppers are most easily grown from transplants. Start seed indoors 6 to 8 weeks before the date you intend to set peppers into the garden. Peppers can be seeded in the garden or transplanted out 2 to 3 weeks after the last frost in spring after the soil temperature has risen to at least 65°F. In temperatures greater than 85°F, peppers may drop their blossoms although set fruit will ripen. Hot peppers tolerate hot weather better than sweet peppers.

Planting and spacing. Sow hot pepper seed ½ inch deep, 18 to 24 inches apart. Space rows 24 to 36 inches apart. Sow two seeds to each spot and thin to the most successful seedling. Peppers can be transplanted into the garden when they are 4 to 6 inches tall.

Container growing. Peppers can be grown in a large container. An 8-inch pot will accommodate a single plant. In larger containers, set plants on 12-inch centers. Peppers can be grown indoors. Peppers started indoors before the last frost in spring will get a head start on the season. Extend the season in the fall by moving plants indoors if frost threatens or if temperatures warm to greater than 90°F. Bring outdoor started peppers inside for a few hours a day at first until they get used to the lower light available indoors.

Caring for Hot Peppers

Water and feeding. Keep peppers evenly moist but not wet particularly when blossoms appear and fruit begins to form. Soil that goes too dry can result in flower drop. Add aged compost to planting beds before planting and again at midseason. Water more frequently after the fruit forms. Water heavily 4 to 8 hours before harvest to turn hot peppers milder; withhold watering before harvest to make hot peppers hotter.

Companion plants. Beets, garlic, onions, parsnips, radishes.

Care. Keep planting beds well weeded to avoid competition. Peppers are shallow-rooted, so cultivate around peppers with care. Mulch to keep soil temperature and moisture even.

Avoid high nitrogen fertilizers which will create large leafy plants with few or no fruits. High temperatures and wind can cause flowers to drop and plants not to set fruit.

Plastic mulch can improve pepper yields. Organic compost mulches will reduce weeding and watering, but not fruit yields.

Use shade cloth to protect peppers from sunburn if the temperature exceeds 105°F.

Pests. Peppers can be attacked by aphids, cutworms, flea beetles, and hornworms. Discourage cutworms by placing a collar around each transplant at the time of planting; hand pick hornworms off of plants. Flea beetles and aphids can be partially controlled by hosing them off the plants and pinching out infested foliage.

Diseases. Peppers are susceptible to rot, blossom end rot, anthracnose, tobacco mosaic virus, bacterial spot, and mildew. Plant disease-resistant varieties. Keep the garden clean and free of weeds where pests and diseases can shelter. Remove infected plants before the disease can spread. If you smoke, wash your hands before working with the plants to avoid spreading the tobacco mosaic virus.

Harvesting Hot Peppers

Harvest. Hot peppers are ready for harvest in 60 to 95 days after sowing. Pick hot peppers when they have reached full size and their mature color. Cut the peppers off the vine. Pulling a pepper away from the plant may cause the plant to come out of the soil.

Storing and preserving. Hot peppers will keep in the refrigerator for 1 week or in a cool, dry spot for up to 2 weeks. Roasted and peeled hot peppers will keep in the freezer for up to 6 months. Pickle whole, cooked, and canned hot peppers will keep for up to 2 years.

Hot Pepper Varieties to Grow

Long, tapering hot pepper: Anaheim Chili (80 days); Cayenne Long Red Slim (70 days); Crimson Hot (60 days); Diablo Grande (65 days); Espanola Ristra (65 days); Golden Prolific (65 days); Hot Portugal (64 days); Hungarian Yellow Wax (60 days); Inferno (65 days); Mirasol (75 days); Mulato Isleno (85 days); Surefire (65 days).

Cylindrical hot peppers: Ancho (65-100 days); Czechoslovakian Black (65 days); Hot Stuff (60 days); Jalapa (65 days); Jalapeno (72 days); Louisiana Hots (69 days); Pretty Hot Purple (80 days); Serrano (70 days); Tam Jalapeno (65 days).

Medium to small tapering hot peppers: Tabasco (80-120 days); Thai Hot (75 days).

Yellow hot peppers: Casabella (75 days); Santa Fe Grande (75 days); Szentesi Semi-Hot (60 days).

Common name. Pepper, hot pepper, chili pepper

Botanical name. Capsicum frutescens (hot pepper); Capsicum annuum (sweet and hot peppers)

Origin. New World Tropics


Written by Stephen Albert

Stephen Albert is a horticulturist, master gardener, and certified nurseryman who has taught at the University of California for more than 25 years. He holds graduate degrees from the University of California and the University of Iowa. His books include Vegetable Garden Grower’s Guide, Vegetable Garden Almanac & Planner, Tomato Grower’s Answer Book, and Kitchen Garden Grower’s Guide. His Vegetable Garden Grower’s Masterclass is available online. has more than 10 million visitors each year.


Comments are closed.
    • Your yield will depend on the type of pepper, fertilizer, and location. We harvest 3 times a week year round, but winter doesn’t kill our plants here. The nice thing about peppers in here is you have cash inflow every week. The price fluctuates a lot though. You should be able to check with the government for information relative to your country and region.

  1. I have two year old plant but it still gives me a fair harvest but the peppers are also smaller How long do these plants last ?

    • Peppers can live to 7 years old in the right climate–that is warm to very warm year-round. For best yield, renew nutrients in the soil by side-dressing aged compost around your plants at least twice a year–more if possible. Allow the aged compost to be carried into the soil by rain or irrigation; this will keep the soil moisture-retentive, well-drained, and nutrient rich.

  2. Is it realistically possible to achieve Chili Pepper Yield per month of 15,000 KG from just 1.5 acres of land? I came across this amazing report from south India and wonder how the normal growth period of 60-95 days for chili peppers can be shortened so drastically. Thank you for your useful site.

    • Many factors would enter into the yield per acre–the variety of pepper being grown, days to maturity, the pounds or kilogram yield per plant, fertilizers, and environmental factors including sunlight, day and night temperatures, wind, etc. To optimize yield where you grow consult agriculture extension service, university, and commercial agronomists. In perhaps the optimal pepper growing region of California, University of California agronomists reported a yield of 7700 KG per acre–over the course of one crop, not a month.

    • The harvest time for a chili pepper will depend on the length of the growing season where you live. If you have a short growing season, the harvest will be short. If you have a long growing season and harvest peppers regularly, the plants will continue to produce new fruit. In southern subtropical Mexico, where the pepper is a perennial, peppers can be harvested throughout the year since temperatures rarely dip below 65F and plants continue to produce flowers. If peppers on a plant are not harvested and fruits linger on the plant, the plant will quit producing flowers and, in turn, new fruits. If you harvest regularly, the plant will continue to produce flowers and fruits as long as temperatures do not drop into the low 60F. Once your plants produce fruit, harvest them regularly; this will allow the plant to produce more flowers and more fruits and this will extend your harvest.

  3. Thanks very much…Steve
    am in Ghana, located in the tropic zone….thus I can harvest my peppers throughout the year with proper plant care.

    • Yes, peppers in your region of the world are perennial plants and, as you note, can be harvested throughout the year. When the fruits reach edible size harvest them and let new flowers produce new fruits.

  4. Thx alot Mr Steve. I need your Advise and Guidelines about Crop cutting experiment in Chilli pepper production. And about loss assessment.

    This topic is more important

    • For research in this area, get in touch with agronomists at an agriculture university in your region. You may also find reports online.

  5. I am from Malawi. I want to join Hot Chilli farming but i want your advice, how many kgs of hot dry pepper can I get from one Ecre and where can i sell it? How many pepper can i pick from one plant

    • A healthy chili plant will produce 20 to 50 peppers per plant. Check at a nearby farmers’ market or produce wholesaler for where you can sell peppers in your regions.

    • A chili pepper plant producing thick-walled fruit may produce 5 or 6 fruits, while a small-fruited variety may produce 30, 50, or even 70 peppers. The weight will therefore vary.

    • To find an average–count the number of seeds in each of 10 pepper fruits then divide by 10; this will give you the average seeds per plants; to determine the numbers of seeds a hectare will produce, multiply the average number of seeds per fruit by the number of plants you plant.

  6. Hi Steve—After a 2-day cold snap (below 60º F) all my hot peppers showed a change. The Bird’s Beak pepper’s flowers all yellowed and died, the new leaves were smaller and puckered. I cut the plant back, and 3 weeks later the new leaves are tiny, gray-green, and strangely rigid. They’re also pointy. The Portugese hot pepper grew small, coarse leaves, but still dark green. Now, the new leaves are long, narrow, and tightly curled down. Same with the Lady Hermit pepper and the Haskorea. All the plants are in containers. Is it safe to eat the fruit that grew before the plants exhibited these problems? Several plants in my container garden are now growing these tightly curled leaves.

    • The plants are likely suffering from cold shock. Assuming the plants are suffering from cold, the fruit (peppers) can be eaten. Peppers can be harvested and eaten at any stage of development. If temps are less than 65F at night, place a clear plastic bag over each plant to create a mini-greenhouse. Remove the bag on warm days.

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