Florence fennel is a cool-weather perennial grown as an annual. Fennel can be sown in the garden as early as 2 to 3 weeks before the average last frost date in spring. Florence fennel, which is grown for its bulbous stalk, requires 90 to 115 frost-free days to reach harvest. For autumn crops sow fennel in mid- to late summer.
Description. Florence fennel or finocchio is grown primarily for its bulbous base and leaf stalks which are used as vegetables. Fennel is a stocky plant that can grow to 24 inches (61cm) tall and looks something like celery with fleshy stalks and feathery leaves. A taller cultivar of fennel known as common or sweet fennel is grown for its leaves and seeds which are used as herbal seasonings. Fennel produces a flat-topped cluster of small, golden flowers. Both Florence fennel and common fennel are members of the parsley family.
Yield. Plant 5 Florence fennel plants for each household member.
Planting Florence Fennel
Site. Grow fennel in full sun. Plant fennel in well-drained soil rich in organic matter. Prepare the bed in advance by working in aged compost. Fennel prefers a soil pH of 5.5 to 6.8.
Planting time. Florence fennel is a cool-weather perennial grown as an annual. Fennel can be sown in the garden as early as 2 to 3 weeks before the average last frost date in spring. Seeds germinate best at 60°F (17°C). Fennel will tolerate heat and cold but does best when it comes to maturity in cool weather. Fennel requires 90 to 115 frost-free days to reach harvest. For an autumn crop sow fennel in mid- to late summer.
Planting and spacing. Sow fennel seed a ¼ inch deep 4 to 6 inches (10-15cm) apart. Thin successful seedlings to 12 inches (30cm) apart. Space rows 24 to 36 inches (61-91cm) apart.
Companion plants. Mints and members of the mint family.
Container growing. Florence fennel will grow in a 6-inch (15cm) pot; in larger containers grow Florence fennel on 8-inch (20cm) centers. Spring plantings will not produce a large bulb. Plant in fall so that the plant comes to maturity in cool weather.
Florence Fennel Care
Water and feeding. Keep fennel on the dry side; the soil should be evenly moist but not wet. Mulch to retain soil moisture in hot regions. Prepare planting beds with aged compost. Side dress fennel with aged compost at midseason.
Care. Blanch the lower stems when the bulbous base grows to the size of an egg; do this by mulching up around the bulb–the bulb will be more tender and sweet at harvest. Remove seed stalks to increase the production of stems and bulbs. Fennel will self-seed if left unattended.
Pests. Fennel may be attacked by the parsley caterpillar. Remove it by hand. Generally, fennel has no other serious pest problems.
Diseases. Fennel has no serious disease problems.
Harvesting and Storing Florence Fennel
Harvest. Fennel’s bulbous stalk can be harvested when it is 3 inches (7cm) or more in diameter. Cut the whole stalk like celery just below the point where individual stalks join together. Cut leaves as needed once they have reached 18 inches (45cm) tall. Florence fennel will be ready for harvest 90 to 115 days after sowing. Common fennel sprigs can be cut for flavoring once the plant is established.
Storing and preserving. Fennel is best eaten fresh. Florence fennel will keep in the refrigerator for up to 1 week or in a cold moist place for 2 to 3 months. Stalks can be frozen or dried. Fennel leaves can be frozen or dried as herbs; dried leaves should be kept in an airtight container.
Florence Fennel Varieties to Grow
Varieties. ‘Hearld’ for spring planting. ‘Zefa Fino’, ‘Rudy’, and ‘Trieste’ have large, flavorful bulbs.
Common name. Fennel, Florence fennel, finocchio, fenucchi
Botanical name. Foeniculum vulgare dulce
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