Kale is a leafy cool-weather crop that requires two months of cool weather to reach harvest. Kale is a biennial plant, a hardy member of the cabbage family. Kale can grow to 24 inches (60cm) tall; the most common leaf color is green, but kale also comes in shades of blue-green and in variegated shading that range from red to white and yellow to white.
Kale can be eaten raw in salads much as spinach. It can also be chopped and added to soups and stews.
Kale Quick Growing Tips
- Kale is commonly started indoors and transplanted into the garden when seedlings are 4 to 6 weeks old.
- Sow seeds indoors or outdoors 4 to 6 weeks before the last frost in spring or as soon as the soil can be worked.
- Kale yield: plant 4 to 5 plants per household member.
Where to Plant Kale
- Plant kale in full sun; plant kale in partial shade in warm regions. For optimal flavor, grow kale in cool weather.
- Plant kale with humus-rich, well-drained soil with a soil pH between 5.5 and 6.8.
Kale Planting Time
- Kale is a cool-weather crop that can tolerate temperatures as low as 20°F (-6.7°C). Kale does not tolerate heat.
- Direct seed or transplant kale so that it comes to harvest before daytime temperatures exceed 80°F (26°C).
- In cool-summer regions, plant kale in early spring for summer to early fall harvest.
- In warm- and hot-summer regions, plant kale in late summer for harvest in late fall or winter.
- In mild-winter regions, kale can be sown in fall for winter harvest.
Planting and Spacing Kale
- Sow kale seed ½ inch (12mm) deep spaced 3 inches (7cm) apart.
- Thin plants to 12 inches (30cm) apart when they are 4 to 5 inches (10-12cm) tall.
- Space rows 18 to 24 inches (45-61cm) apart.
- Set transplants with crooked stems up to the first leaves.
More tips: Kale Seed Starting Tips.
Watering and Feeding Kale
- Keep kale well watered for sustained growth and to keep leaves from getting too tough.
- Add nutrient-rich aged compost to planting beds in advance of planting. Side dress kale with aged compost every 6 weeks.
Kale Companion Plants
- Good companion plants for kale include beets, celery, herbs, onions, and potatoes.
- Do not plant kale with pole beans, strawberries, or tomatoes.
Caring for Kale
- Mound straw around kale once it is 6 inches (15cm) high to prevent plants from touching the soil; soil easily sticks to kale’s often crinkled leaves.
Container Growing Kale
- Kale will grow in a 6-inch (15cm) container.
- Plant kale on 8-inch (20cm) centers in large containers.
- Move kale grown in containers into the cool shade when the weather warms to extend the season.
Kale Pests and Diseases
- Kale can be attacked by cutworms, cabbage loopers, and imported cabbage worms. Control these pests by handpicking or spry with Bacillus thuringiensis.
- Kale has no serious disease problems.
- Kale will be ready for harvest 55 days from transplanting, and 70 to 80 days from seed.
- Cut individual leaves for use when the plant is 8 to 10 inches high; cut the outside leaves first.
- If you harvest the entire plant, cut 2 inches above the soil and the plant will sprout new leaves in 1 to 2 weeks.
- Harvest kale before it gets old and tough.
More tips: How to Harvest and Store Kale.
Storing and Preserving Kale
- Leave kale in the garden until you are ready to use it. Its flavor will be sweetened by frost.
- Kale will keep in the refrigerator for 1 to 2 weeks in a plastic bag.
- Kale can also be frozen, canned, or dried.
Kale Varieties to Grow
- ‘Blue Armor’ (45-75 days, hybrid); ‘Blue Curled Scotch’ (65 days); ‘Blue Knight’ (55 days, hybrid); ‘Dwarf Blue Curled’ (55 days); ‘Dwarf Blue Scotch’ (55 days); ‘Dwarf Green Curled’ (60 days); ‘Dwarf Siberian’ (65 days); ‘Greenpeace’ (65 days); ‘Hanover Late Seedling’ (68 days); ‘Konserva’ (60 days); ‘Lanciato’ (60-85 days); ‘Red Russian’ (40-60 days); ‘Squire’ (60 days); ‘Verdura’ (60 days); ‘Winterbor’ (60-65 days, hybrid).
- Common name. Kale, borecole
- Botanical name. Brassica oleracea acephala
- Origin. Hybrid
More tips: Kale Growing Quick Tips.