Kale grows best in the cool weather of spring and fall. Mature kale plants can tolerate temperatures as low as 10 to 20°F (-12 to -7°C).
Time kale seed sowing so that plants come to harvest before very warm and hot weather; hot weather will trigger bolting and seed-stalk formation.
Bolting can be slowed by picking the oldest leaves first, but the flavor of kale will suffer in warm and hot weather. The best flavored kale, is kale that has been touched by frost.
Kale matures in 55 to 65 days depending on the variety.
Kale Sowing and Planting Tips:
- Kale is grown from seeds or transplants.
- Seed is viable for 4 years.
- Start kale indoors 10 to 6 weeks before the last spring frost; sow seed in early spring or late summer or a fall or winter crop.
- Sow seed ¼ to ½ inch (6-13mm) deep.
- Sow seeds 4 inch (10cm) apart; later thin seedlings to 16 to 18 inches (40-45cm) apart; use the thinnings in salads. Make sure there is good air circulation around maturing plants to avoid disease.
- Space plants 16 inches (40cm) apart in a staggered pattern or in rows 18 inches apart.
- Kale grows best in full sun but can tolerate light shade.
- Kale prefers a soil pH between 6.0 and 7.0.
- Seed germinates in 5 to 7 days at or near 70°F (21°C); sometimes seed can take up to 2 weeks to germinate if the soil is cold.
- If sowing seed in summer for fall harvest, place the seed in a folded damp paper towel placed in a plastic bag and kept in the refrigerator for 5 days before sowing.
- Keep the soil evenly moist until seeds germinate then keep the soil moist until seedlings are well established; once plants are established mulch with straw to keep the roots cool and moist.
- Add aged compost to planting beds in advance of sowing; compost will feed the soil and aide moisture retention.
- Kale grows best when daytime temperatures are in the 60s°
- Kale can tolerate light frosts in the spring and freezes in the fall.
- Kale planted in the fall can winter over under straw and will begin growth again early in spring.
- Avoid planting kale where cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts or cabbage family crops have recently grown.
- Make successive sowings every few weeks for an extended harvest.
- Fertilize with an organic fertilizer such as fish emulsion at half strength.
- Aphids and flea beetles can attack kale.
Interplanting: Interplant kale with beets, leaf lettuce, onions, spinach, and Swiss chard.
Container Growing Kale: Grow kale in a container a minimum 8 inches (20 cm) wide and deep.
Recommended Kale Planting Calendar:
- 6-4 weeks before the last frost in spring: start seed indoors for transplant out later.
- 4-2 weeks before the last frost in spring: transplant seedlings into the garden.
- 2 weeks before the last frost in spring direct sow in the garden; minimum soil temperature should be 45°
For Fall Harvest:
- 14-12 weeks before the first frost in fall: start seed indoors.
- 10-8 weeks before the first frost in fall: transplant seedlings into the garden.
- 10-6 weeks before the first frost in fall: transplant seedlings into a plastic tunnel or cold frame.
Recommended Kale Varieties: ‘Red Russian’ purple stems, flat, smooth, grey-green leaves; ‘Toscano’ also called dinosaur kale, dark green, savoyed leaves; ‘Winterbor’ ruffly, blue-green leaves.
Botanical Name: Brassica oleracea
Kale is a member of the Brassicacea (Cruciferae) or cabbage family.
More tips: How to Grow Kale.