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Pepper Harvest Tips

Peppers nearing harvest1
green and red bell peppers
Peppers can be harvested at any size or color

Sweet peppers can be picked when immature or full size, green or red–as soon as they are big enough to use. Hot peppers can be picked at any time–any size or color–for fresh use; hot peppers for drying or pickling should be picked when fully ripe. Pick all peppers before the first light frost.

Most peppers will eventually turn red if left on the vine; some types turn orange, yellow, or brown-purple.

Sweet peppers become sweeter when they change colors; hot peppers become hotter when they change colors. Both increase their vitamin A and C content with ripening.

Peppers continue to ripen after picking; place peppers in a cool place after harvest or they will over-ripen. Peppers will keep one to two weeks after harvest at 50° to 60°F (10-15°C) in a moist place.

pepper harvest
Cut peppers from the plant at harvest time–pulling a pepper can damage the plant

How to Harvest Peppers

Use a sharp knife or pruners to harvest peppers. Pulling peppers away from the plant can cause branches to break or tear and leave the plant vulnerable to disease. Leave some of the stem attached to the pepper when cutting fruit.

A good pepper harvest practice is to harvest some peppers to serve green and let others mature to red or full color on the vine. This will give you a mix of flavor, heat, and nutrition. Fully ripe and immature peppers can be served fresh together. Harvest peppers when they are the right size for your use.

Drying and Freezing Peppers

Hot peppers for drying should be picked when red or orange. Choose only thin-walled peppers for natural drying; thick-walled hot peppers such as jalapeño and serrano will rot before they air dry. (Dry these peppers by smoking.) Air dry hot peppers in a warm place with good air circulation. Peppers can also be dried in a food dryer or on a baking sheet in an oven at 175°F (79°C) maximum.

Sweet and hot peppers can be frozen without blanching first. Freeze or dry any peppers that you can not use fresh.

Extending the Pepper Season

If peppers are not ripe when temperatures grow cool, you can cover plants under plant blankets or clear plastic spread over a frame or hoops. Do this when nighttime temperature dip below 60°F (15°C) or days consistently average less than 70°F (21°C). Like tomatoes, pepper plants can be lifted whole from the garden and hung upside down indoors to continue ripening.

Also of interest:

How to Harvest and Store Peppers

Beginner’s Guide to Canning Peppers

Growing Peppers for Flavor

Written by Stephen Albert

Stephen Albert is a horticulturist, master gardener, and certified nurseryman who has taught at the University of California for more than 25 years. He holds graduate degrees from the University of California and the University of Iowa. His books include Vegetable Garden Grower’s Guide, Vegetable Garden Almanac & Planner, Tomato Grower’s Answer Book, and Kitchen Garden Grower’s Guide. His Vegetable Garden Grower’s Masterclass is available online. Harvesttotable.com has more than 10 million visitors each year.

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  1. Best info. site ever…thank you…have ben gardening 100 years !!!! it seems and your info. is right on the spot for beginners and others that have forgotten professional technique.

  2. I have some Anaheim peppers from my garden that I was hoping to smoke and then finish in the dehydrator, to make a chilli powder. Can I smoke them green? Or is it best to wait until they are red… does it make a difference (apart from the heat factor?)

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