Leeks are a cool- and cold-season crop.
There are two types of leeks: short-season leeks and long-season leeks. Long-season leeks which have thick, cylindrical stems–and keep long, and short-season leeks that have a thinner stem and don’t keep as well as long-season leeks.
Short-season leeks mature in as few as 70 days. Long-season leeks mature in about 120 to 170 days. Short-season leeks are harvested during the summer. Long-season varieties are harvested late summer through winter.
Leeks are best started indoors in late winter–about 12 weeks before the last frost–and then transplanted to the garden about a week after the last spring frost.
Sowing and Planting Leeks:
- Grow leeks from seed or transplants.
- It’s best to start leeks from seed indoors 12 to 4 weeks before the last spring frost; later, set out transplants in spring at least 1 week after the last frost when seedlings are the thickness of a pencil
- In mild-winter regions and where the summers are hot, set out transplants in autumn.
- Sow seed indoors in flats or individual pots; sow seed ⅛ inch (3 mm) deep 1 inch (2.5 cm) apart.
- Set out transplants when seedlings are 6 to 12 inches (15-30 cm) tall; space plants 2 to 4 inches (5-10 cm) apart in trenches 5 inches (13 cm) deep or drop seedlings in a hole about 6 inches deep leaving just one or two leaves above the surface.
- Space rows 12 inches apart.
- Start seed in a potting mix then transplant to loose, fertile soil in the garden. Adding aged compost to planting beds in advance of sowing will feed the soil and aide moisture retention.
- Seed will germinate in 8 to 16 days at an optimal temperature of 70°F (21°C) or thereabouts.
- Optimum soil temperature to grow leeks is 70°F (21°C).
- Leeks prefer a pH range of 6.0 to 6.8.
- Grow leeks in full sun for best yield.
- Keep the soil evenly moist during growth.
- Keep the planting beds free of weeds to avoid competition for moisture and nutrients.
- Avoid planting leeks where onions or garlic have grown recently.
- Fertilize with an organic fertilizer such as fish emulsion at half strength.
- Common pest enemies include thrips and root maggots.
Interplanting: Plant leeks with beets, carrots, celery, garlic onions, and tomatoes.
Container Growing Leeks: Grow leeks in a container at least 10 to 12 inches (25-30 cm) deep.
Recommended Leek Planting Calendar:
- 4-3 weeks before last spring frost: start seed of long-season varieties indoors for fall and winter harvest.
- 8-6 weeks after the last spring frost: transplant seedlings into the garden for winter harvest.
Recommended Leek Varieties: ‘American Flag’ (120 days) and ‘Giant Musselburgh’ (150 days) are favorites; ‘King Richard’ (75 days) is early maturing; ‘Blue Solaise’ is sweet tasting; ‘Argenta’, ‘Unique’, ‘Tardona’ and ‘Nebraska’ are cold hardy.
Botanical Name: Allium porum
Leeks are a member of the Alliaceae also called Lilliaceae family, other members of this family include onions and garlic.