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Jerusalem Artichoke Plant Starting Tips

Sunchoke tuber
Jerusalem artichoke tubers

Jerusalem artichoke is also known as sunchoke.

Jerusalem artichoke is a tuberous perennial plant. Jerusalem artichokes are propagated from whole or cut tubers. They are commonly harvested from mid-summer to late autumn.

Jerusalem artichokes should be grown in a permanent location in a bed dedicated just to this crop. Once plants are established and tubers begin to reproduce, Jerusalem artichokes can be difficult to remove from the garden.

Jerusalem artichokes require an 18 to 20-week frost-free growing season. Start new plants in spring 4 to 6 weeks after the last frost for an autumn harvest.

Harvest Jerusalem artichokes in autumn after the leaves have died back and tubers are 3 to 4 inches (7.5-10 cm) in diameter. The flavor will be sweeter after plants have been hit by a light frost.

Jerusalem Artichoke Sowing and Planting

  • Grow Jerusalem artichokes from whole or partial tubers.
  • Plant tubers cut sections of tubers directly in the garden. Choose tubers or sections with one or two eyes or growing nodes per piece. Do not allow cut pieces to dry out before planting.
  • Set tubers in a trench about 4 to 6 inches (10-15 cm) deep.
  • Space tubers 12 to 24 inches (30-60 cm) apart in all directions.
  • Plant tubers in spring 4 to 6 weeks after the last frost for an autumn harvest.
  • Optimal planting soil temperature is 50°F to 60°F (10-16°C).
  • Tubers should sprout in 7 to 14 days.
  • Keep the soil just moist—not wet–until tubers germinate.
  • Optimal growing soil temperature is 65°F to 90°F (18-32°C).
  • Add aged compost to planting beds in advance of transplanting.
  • Jerusalem artichokes prefer a soil pH range of 5.8 to 6.2.
  • Grow Jerusalem artichokes in full sun for best yield.
  • Fertilize with fish emulsion or a soluble complete fertilizer at half strength.
  • Plant in a dedicated bed; Jerusalem artichokes don’t grow well with other crops.
  • Limit the spread of roots by installing wood, plastic or metal barriers at least 24 inches (60 cm) deep encircling the planting bed. Stray tubers left in the garden will sprout the following season.

More tips at How to Grow Sunchokes.

Interplanting: Plant Jerusalem artichokes in a dedicated bed; Jerusalem artichokes don’t grow well with other crops.

Jerusalem Artichoke Planting Calendar

  • 4- 6 weeks after the last frost in spring: set out tubers in the garden for a fall harvest.
Jerusalem artichoke plants
The optimal growing soil temperature for Jerusalem artichokes is 65°F to 90°F.

Recommended Jerusalem Artichoke Varieties

  • ‘Stampede’ produces large white tubers.
  • ‘Boston Red’ produces red-skinned tubers.
  • ‘Mammoth French White’ grows well in all regions.

Botanical Name: Helianthus tuberous

Jerusalem artichoke is a member of the Asteraceae family; other members of this family are sunflowers, artichokes, and dandelions.

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  1. Good morning! I have a question regarding Jerusalem artichokes. I recently purchased 3 1-gallon pots with plants labeled “Jerusalem artichoke”. Upon removing the plants from the pots for planting I found no tubers; only roots; some of which are growing small pea sized to marble sized nodes(?). Are these the tubers early formation and if so, how long before they’re big enough to taste?

    I look forward to hearing from you soon.

    Barbara in Albuquerque, New Mexico

    • Jerusalem artichokes can be grown from small tubers or pieces of tuber (as long as there is one eye) and even from peelings that have an eye. Your description sounds like a very immature tuber–about the size of a small seed potato. Jerusalem artichokes require 120, frost-free days to reach maturity and useable size. If you have no frost where you live, plant them in fall for spring harvest. If frost or freezing weather comes in winter where you live, over-winter the plants in a warm, sunny spot and plant them out in the garden in spring.

    • Jerusalem artichokes can mature at 10 feet tall. They are tuberous rooted and the tubers will spread if you don’t dig them up at the end of the season. Place them at least 8 feet away from your grapes–so that they do not shade the ripening grapes at the end of the season.

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