in ,

Vegetable Seed Germination Temperatures

Bean sprout

Vegetable seed germination is greatly dependent upon soil temperature. Other near equal factors include seed vitality (the age of the seed), soil moisture, soil air, and soil conditions and workability.

This chart shows the range of soil temperatures needed for seed germination. The chart also shows the number of days to germination at optimum temperatures. A seed will germinate at temperatures between the minimum soil temperature and the optimum soil temperatures, but the number of days to germination will be greater.

Use this chart to determine if the soil temperature in the garden is right for seed starting the crop you want to plant. (Use a soil thermometer to take the soil temperature.) If the outdoor soil temperature is not right, you can likely start seed indoors at near optimum temperature.

Crop Germination
Minimum Soil
Temperature (°F)
  Germination
Optimum Soil
Temperature
Range (°F)
 Germination
Maximum Soil
Temperature (°F)
 Days to
Germination
at Optimal
Temps
Asparagus5060-859514-18
Bean, lima6075-85854-10
Bean, snap6075-85954-10
Beet4060-85954-10
Broccoli4060-85957-10
Brussels sprouts4060-85953-10
Cabbage4060-85955-10
Carrot4065-85956
Cauliflower4065-85954-10
Celery4060-709510
Chinese cabbage4060-85954-10
Collards4060-85955-10
Corn5065-951054-10
Cucumber6065-951055-7
Eggplant6075-859510-15
Endive3560-758510-14
Garlic3565-85957-14
Kale4060-85955-7
Kohlrabi4060-951055-10
Leeks3565-85958-16
Lettuce3560-75852-10
Muskmelon6075-951054-10
Mustard3560-75854-6
Okra6085-951057-12
Onion3565-85954-12
Parsley4065-85955-6 weeks
Parsnip3565-75855-28
Pea4065-75855-7
Pepper6065-75957-10
Pumpkin6085-951054-10
Radicchio3560-75855-7
Radish4065-85954-10
Spinach3565-75756-14
Squash6085-951057-10
Swiss chard4065-85957
Tomato5065-85955-7
Turnip4060-951053-10
Watermelon6070-951054-10

For specific seed starting requirements for the crop, you want to grow, seed-specific crop seed starting directions. Go to the Index to find your crop or see Seed Starting Specific Crops also in the Index.

Also of interest: Seed Germination Requirements.

Written by Stephen Albert

Stephen Albert is a horticulturist, master gardener, and certified nurseryman who has taught at the University of California for more than 25 years. He holds graduate degrees from the University of California and the University of Iowa. His books include Vegetable Garden Grower’s Guide, Vegetable Garden Almanac & Planner, Tomato Grower’s Answer Book, and Kitchen Garden Grower’s Guide. His Vegetable Garden Grower’s Masterclass is available online. Harvesttotable.com has more than 10 million visitors each year.

Comments

Comments are closed.
How To Grow Tips

How To Grow Tomatoes

How To Grow Peppers

How To Grow Broccoli

How To Grow Carrots

How To Grow Beans

How To Grow Corn

How To Grow Peas

How To Grow Lettuce

How To Grow Cucumbers

How To Grow Zucchini and Summer Squash

How To Grow Onions

How To Grow Potatoes

Soil with carrots

Vegetable Planting and Soil Temperature

Watermelon planted on a mound

When to Plant Watermelon